Mohamed Mohamed Morsi Issa Al-Ayyat
Former President of Egypt
Mohamed Mohamed Morsi Issa Al-Ayyat (August 8, 1951 – June 17, 2019), is the fifth president of the Arab Republic of Egypt and the first after the January 25 revolution. He is the first elected civilian president of the country and the first Islamic president of Egypt. His victory was announced on June 24, 2012 with 51.73% of the votes of the participating voters. His presidential term began with the announcement on June 24, 2012 of his victory in the 2012 Egyptian presidential elections, and he assumed office on June 30, 2012 after being sworn in. Morsi refused to live in the presidential palaces like the rest of the former presidents of Egypt and said that he lives in a rented apartment at his own expense. Mohamed Morsi’s period witnessed many protests and demonstrations. He was removed from power in the July 3, 2013 coup in Egypt, which came after the demonstrations of June 30 of the same year due to crises in Electricity and gasoline, the group said, were fabricated by the institutions of the deep state. He remained in detention from the date of his dismissal, until his death on June 17, 2019. After several charges were brought against him, including communicating with Qatar and Hamas, and revealing national security secrets during his presidency. . He was a former deputy in the Egyptian People’s Assembly for the 2000-2005 session. He is a mechanical engineer and university professor and holds a PhD in materials engineering. On February 15, 2012, Mohamed Morsi threatened to reconsider the Camp David Treaty in response to America’s threat to stop its financial aid to Egypt because of the foreign funding issue. He died. Muhammad Morsi while attending one of his trial sessions in the case of collaborating with Hamas in the Cairo Criminal Court held at the Institute of Police Secretaries in the Tora Prison Complex on June 17, 2019, and state television announced that he had a fainting attack; He died as a result, and was transferred to the prison hospital.
Mohamed Morsi was born on August 8, 1951, in the village of Al-Adwa, in the district of Al-Hiya, in Al-Sharqiya Governorate. He grew up in his village to a farmer’s father and a housewife’s mother, and he is their eldest son, who are now deceased. He has two brothers and three brothers. He learned in the schools of the Sharkia Governorate, then moved to Cairo for university studies and worked as a teaching assistant. Then he served in the Egyptian army (1975-1976) recruited with the chemical warfare weapon in the division. The second is infantry. Morsi married Ms. Naglaa Mahmoud on November 30, 1978, and he had five children: Ahmed, Shaima, Osama, Omar, and Abdullah. He has three grandchildren from his daughter Shaima.
His eldest son, Dr. Ahmed Morsi, has been working as a physician in Saudi Arabia for two years, in the Department of Urology and General Surgery at Al Mana National Hospital in Al Ahsa. Shaima is the only daughter of Dr. Morsi. She holds a Bachelor of Science from Zagazig University, and is married to Dr. Abdel Rahman Fahmy, a professor at the Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University. She has 3 children: Ali, Aisha, and Mahmoud.
As for Osama, the third son of President Morsi, he holds a Bachelor of Laws and practices the legal profession through his office. His fourth son is Omar, a final year student at the Faculty of Commerce. As for Abdullah, his fifth and last son, he is a high school student. His family has distanced itself from political work, so that his wife refused to be called the “First Lady of Egypt” and stressed that there is no such thing as “The Lady of Egypt”, but there is the first maid of Egypt.
Study and jobs
He obtained a Bachelor of Engineering from the Faculty of Engineering at Cairo University in 1975 with honors, and then a master’s degree in Metallurgical Engineering, Cairo University in 1978.
He also received a scholarship from Professor Kruger from the University of Southern California for his academic excellence, and a Ph. Between 1982-1985, Professor and Head of the Materials Engineering Department at the Faculty of Engineering – Zagazig University from 1985 to 2010. He also taught at the University of Southern California, University of California, Northridge, University of California, Los Angeles, Cairo University, Zagazig University, and Al-Fateh University in Tripoli, Libya. He has dozens of research papers on “Metal Surface Treatment”, and he was elected a member of the faculty club at Zagazig University. He also worked with the US government and NASA for outer space, due to his experience in mining and metals, and he made experiments and inventions for a type of metal that can withstand the intense heat resulting from the high speed of missiles crossing cosmic space.
He belonged to the Muslim Brotherhood ideologically in 1977 and organizationally in late 1979. He worked as a member of the political section of the group since its inception in 1992. He ran for the People’s Assembly elections in 1995 and the 2000 elections, and succeeded in them. In the 2005 People’s Assembly elections, he won the highest number of votes, with a large margin over his nearest competitor
But a run-off was held, after which his opponent was declared the winner. He was one of the most active members of the People’s Assembly and the author of the most famous interrogation in the People’s Assembly on the Upper Egypt train incident. He condemned the government and government newspapers came out the next day praising his interrogation. Dr. was chosen. Morsi is a member of the Committee for the Resistance of Zionism in Sharkia Governorate. He was also chosen as a member of the International Conference of Political Parties, Forces and Professional Syndicates. He is a founding member of the Egyptian Committee to Resist the Zionist Project. Co-founder of the National Front for Change with Dr. Aziz Sedky in 2004; He also participated in the founding of the Democratic Alliance for Egypt, which included 40 political parties and currents in 2011. The Brotherhood’s Shura Council elected him on April 30, 2011 as head of the Freedom and Justice Party established by the group, along with Essam El-Erian as his deputy and Mohamed Saad Al-Katatni as the party’s secretary-general.
Subjected to Constraint
He was arrested several times. He spent seven months in prison after he was arrested on the morning of May 18, 2006 in front of the North Cairo Court and the Galaa Courts Complex in downtown Cairo, while he was participating in popular demonstrations denouncing the transfer of two judges to the Jurisdiction Committee. Their position on rigging the People’s Assembly elections in 2005
500 members of the Muslim Brotherhood were arrested with him, and he was released on December 10, 2006. He was also arrested in Wadi al-Natrun prison on the morning of Friday of Anger January 28, 2011 during the revolution of January 25, along with 34 Brotherhood leaders at the governorate level to prevent them from participating in the Friday of Anger, and the people liberated them on the 30th. January after the security forces left the prisons during the revolution, but Morsi refused to leave his cell and contacted several media outlets demanding that the judicial authorities go to the prison headquarters and verify their legal position and the reasons for their arrest, before leaving the prison; Because no judicial authority reached them. Three of his sons were subjected to accidents during the revolution. On Wednesday, February 2, 2011, 300 thugs surrounded his son, Abdullah, with 70 of them, inside a mosque, and demanded a ransom. Osama arranged the ransom, and walked with the ransom due to the lack of transportation at the time. Security men grabbed him, arrested him, tied him to a tree inside a security camp in Zagazig for 35 hours, beat him, broke his bones, cut off his clothes, and stole the ransom, his money, and his identity card. On the same day, Omar was participating in a demonstration, but thugs and security men chased him down the street, and he fell, and they beat him with a truncheon. He was stitched in the head, and he sat in the house for two weeks on the bed, according to Morsi’s narration.
His Candidacy For The Presidency
After the Freedom and Justice Party, in agreement with the Muslim Brotherhood, nominated Bekhirat al-Shater as a candidate for the 2012 Egyptian presidential elections, the party decided on April 7, 2012 to nominate Morsi as a backup candidate for al-Shater as a precautionary measure, fearing that there might be legal obstacles preventing al-Shater from running.
The PEC had already decided to disqualify Al-Shater and nine other candidates on April 17. Then the Muslim Brotherhood and its political wing, represented by the Freedom and Justice Party, decided to nominate Mohamed Morsi, whose papers were accepted by the committee, as a candidate for the group. The party and the group said in a joint statement:
“As the Muslim Brotherhood and the Freedom and Justice Party are aware of the seriousness and importance of this stage, the group and the party announce that they will continue to compete for the presidency of the republic, through their candidate, Dr. Mohamed Morsi, with the same approach and program, in a way that achieves the supreme interests of the homeland and cares for the rights of the people.” Mohamed Morsi and Ahmed Shafiq topped the first round, but neither of them obtained more than the required fifty percent, which necessitated a second round. After more than one delay in announcing the results of the second round, accompanied by some rumors, the campaign of candidate Mohamed Morsi announced his victory based on the minutes of the election committees, according to what she said, and published a copy of those minutes on the Internet, and candidate Ahmed Shafiq responded to that by holding a press conference announcing his success. Also, what created confusion throughout Egypt.
On Sunday, June 24, 2012, the Egyptian Presidential Elections Commission declared Mohamed Morsi the winner of the second round of the elections with 51.7%, while Ahmed Shafiq won 48.3%.
Hours after his victory, it was announced that Morsi had resigned from the presidency of the Freedom and Justice Party and from membership in the Guidance Bureau of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Assuming the position of President of the Republic
On June 30, 2012, Mohamed Morsi assumed the position of President of the Arab Republic of Egypt in an official capacity, when he took the Republican oath before the Supreme Constitutional Court in Cairo, in the presence of presidents and judges. Then he went to Cairo University in the procession of the presidency of the republic to meet with state leaders, public figures, ambassadors of countries and others in official ceremonies, and to deliver his speech to celebrate this occasion. Then he went to the Hikstep area, to attend the ceremony of the armed forces, in the presence of Field Marshal Muhammad Hussein Tantawi, head of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces at the time, his deputy, Lieutenant General Sami Anan, and a number of army leaders and statesmen.
Assuming the position of President of the Republic
An insurgency move
At the end of April 2013, the Tamarod movement was launched, a movement that called for the withdrawal of confidence from Morsi, and was calling for early presidential elections. The movement called for demonstrations on June 30, 2013, based on signatures that it says it collected from (22) million Egyptians.
It appeared in leaks that the UAE government funded it.
Armed Forces deadline
On July 1, 2013, the Armed Forces set, in a statement, a 48-hour deadline to meet the people’s demands in the June 30 demonstrations. Otherwise, it will intervene and announce a “map for the future and measures to supervise its implementation.”
The statement, which was broadcast on state television, stated that the Egyptian arena witnessed, yesterday, demonstrations, and an exit of the great people of Egypt to express their opinion and will in an unprecedented, civilized and peaceful manner, and “everyone saw the movement of the Egyptian people and heard their voice with the utmost respect and interest,” stressing that “it is inevitable For the people to receive a response to their movement, and to their appeal, from each party that bears a measure of responsibility in these dangerous circumstances surrounding the homeland.
In its statement, the armed forces said that it “will not be a party to politics or governance, and will not be willing to deviate from its role in the authentic democratic thought stemming from the will of the people,” noting at the same time that “the national security of the state is at grave risk due to developments The country is witnessing it, and he places responsibilities on us, each according to his position, to deal with what is appropriate in order to ward off these dangers.
She added that «the armed forces sensed early the seriousness of the current circumstance, and the demands it holds for the great Egyptian people, and therefore it had previously set a week for all political forces in the country to agree and get out of the crisis, but this week passed without any gesture or action appearing, which led to To the people’s exit with determination and determination, and with full freedom in this brilliant way, which aroused admiration, appreciation and interest at the domestic, regional and international levels.
And the General Command of the Armed Forces affirmed that “losing more time will only achieve more division and conflict, which we have warned of and continue to warn about,” considering that the people “suffered and did not find anyone to sympathize or sympathize with them, which places a moral and psychological burden on the forces.” Armed, which finds it necessary for everyone to stop anything other than embracing this proud people, who have demonstrated their willingness to achieve the impossible if they feel sincerity and devotion for them.
The Armed Forces said that it “repeats and repeats the call to meet the people’s demands, and gives everyone 48 hours as a last chance to bear the burdens of the historical circumstance that the country is going through, and that it will not tolerate or forgive any forces that fail to assume their responsibilities.”
And the statement declared that “if the demands of the people are not fulfilled within the specified deadline, it will be obligatory for the armed forces, based on its national and historical responsibility, and out of respect for the demands of the great people of Egypt, to announce a map of the future, and measures that it will supervise its implementation with the participation of all loyal national spectrums and trends, including youth, which was And he is still detonating his glorious revolution, without excluding or excluding anyone.
The statement directed “a greeting of appreciation and honor to the loyal and loyal men of the armed forces, who were and still bear their national responsibility towards the great people of Egypt with determination, perseverance, pride and pride.”
July 3, 2013 coup
Mass demonstrations broke out, calling for the departure of the President of the Republic, and the next day, the leaders of the armed forces issued a statement that the opposition forces considered a warning to Morsi to step down, which contradicts the army’s intervention in politics. And the presidency issued a statement in the early hours of July 2, in which it said that it believed that some of the phrases in the army’s statement “carry indications that could cause confusion in the complex national scene.”
His presidency continued until the armed forces deposed him on July 3, 2013, and several other measures known as the road map were taken, after the demonstrations of June 30.